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以下文章內容僅供參考,文章中所提到的任何資料會因人而異。


(轉貼)歐洲人權法院:同性婚姻不是人權

王中和簡介  一位「身心靈整合學」和「宗教神秘學」的研究者,也是一位作家,現任「生命之眼」身心靈整合中心執行長,也是全球「新時代運動」推廣者,研究東西方「神秘學」二十餘年,精通易經、風水陰陽宅思想,並對天文曆算、子平、紫微、七政四餘和西洋占星術、塔羅牌、靈數學等作深入之研究。平日喜讀書、搜書,會通儒、釋、道,有志於人天之際,而通變古今。   現 任 一、「生命之眼」身心靈中心執行長 經 歷 一、「中華民國五術學會」顧問 二、「中華超心理學會」副理事長 三、「中國易經研究發展協會」星命術數研究委員會主任委員 四、中和社區大學講師 五、文化大學教育推廣部講師(占星術與心靈成長,生命的藍圖)  六、「台灣歐林身...

http://www.facts4lgbt.info/gb/article_detail.php?type=database&cate=12&id=103


歐洲人權法院:同性婚姻不是人權



(7月25日) 當歐洲最高的人權法院向一個由男跨女的變性人及其妻子指出,民事結合(civil union)對他們已經足夠時,法院粉碎了一個想從判決引入同性婚姻的希望。


根據歐洲人權法院的先例,法律與現實間仍有遙遠的差距,歐洲人權法並未要求締約國「承認同性婚姻」。


發起訴訟的團體及同性婚姻的支持者承認結果是可預期的,盡管如此,判決結果對歐洲的同性戀權利帶來毀滅性的影響,粉碎同性「婚姻」成為事實的希望。此案件的事實其實是具有特殊性的



芬蘭的Heli Hämäläinen在2009年變性,生理改變為女性,盡管跟他妻子在2002年生了一個小孩,養育他長達十年。在手術前,他嘗試改變法律上的性別,由男變女,但沒有成功。因為芬蘭不允許同性婚姻,但他仍維持婚姻狀態,因此他被告知更改法律上的性別是不可能,於是他向歐洲人權法院提起訴訟。

Hämäläinen及其配偶堅持,基於宗教信仰,他們是不會離婚的,但是民事結合依據芬蘭的法律,並不會給予他們與婚姻相等的福利。歐洲法庭明確指出,歐洲人權法對於同性婚姻並未予以考慮,且認為民事結合對同性伴侶的保障已相當充足(good enough)。

法院確立了保護傳統的婚姻制度是令人信服的國家利益(valid state interest)─暗示了一種觀點,即同性間的「關系」(relations)與男女間的婚姻(marriage)並不同,因此在法律上得有差別待遇。

判決指出,歐洲人權法承認「一男一女結婚及建立家庭的基本權利」,以及「將婚姻是一男一女之間的傳統觀念納入保障」。歐洲人權法院解釋,此系因同性婚姻在歐洲欠缺共識,47個締約國中,只有10個國家准許被相關條約規範。

此判決特別重創了芬蘭的同性戀權益,其實國會議員在上個月已拒絕通過同性婚姻立法,這是自2012年以來,同性婚姻第二次在國會裏被封殺,芬蘭是唯一不容許同性婚姻的斯堪地那維亞國(Scandinavian country)。

在世界各地,同運人士均被告知同性婚姻不是人權。其實意大利憲法法院在上個月,也面對類似的案例,法院也指出,民事結合已能適當保障同性伴侶的利益。

美國最高法院去年亦曾明文拒絕,同性婚姻是在美國憲法或國際法下的「權利」。在涉及禁止美國聯邦政府承認同性婚姻法律的案件中, 法院判決個州可自行決定是否容許同性婚姻。



文章來自:

http://c-fam.org/en/issues/marriage-and-family/7927-european-court-gay-marriage-is-not-a-human-right


關鍵字 Keywords: 同性戀 Homosexuality , 女同性戀 Lesbian , 男同性戀 Gay , LGBT LGBT , 同性婚姻 Same-sex marriage , 同性戀運動 LGBT social movements , 性傾向 sexual orientation , 跨性別 Transgender , 同性婚姻合法化 Legalization of same sex marriage , 變性人 transsexual , 誇性別 Transgender

http://c-fam.org/en/issues/marriage-and-family/7927-european-court-gay-marriage-is-not-a-human-right

European Court: Gay Marriage is not a Human Right


By Stefano Gennarini, J.D.

NEW YORK, July 25 (C-FAM) The highest human rights court in Europe shattered hopes that it would judicially impose same-sex marriage when it told a male to female transsexual and his wife that a civil union should be good enough for them.

European human rights law does not require countries to “grant access to marriage to same-sex couples,” according to a judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in a case that tests the remote boundaries of possibility in law and fact.

The parties to the litigation and supporters of same-sex marriage acknowledge the result was predictable. Nevertheless the judgment has a devastating effect on gay rights in Europe, dashing hopes that same-sex “marriage” can become a reality there. The facts of the case are distinctive.

Heli Hämäläinen of Finland had a sex change operation in 2009 to appear anatomically as a woman, despite having fathered a child with his wife of over 10 years in 2002. Before the operation, he tried to change his legal identity from male to female without success.

He sued before the European court when he was told that it would not be possible so long as he remained married, because Finland does not allow persons of the same sex to marry each other. Hämäläinen and his spouse insist that their religious beliefs prevent them from seeking a divorce and that civil unions do not give them the same benefits as marriage in Finnish law.

The European court was unequivocal. It not only said that European human rights law does not contemplate same-sex marriage, it said that civil unions are good enough for same-sex couples.

The court confirmed that the protection of the traditional institution of marriage is a valid state interest—implicitly endorsing the view that relations between persons of the same sex are not identical to marriage between a man and a woman, and may be treated differently in law.

The judgment says that European human rights law recognizes the “fundamental right of a man and woman to marry and to found a family” and “enshrines the traditional concept of marriage as being between a man and a woman.” It explains how no European consensus on same-sex marriages exists, as only 10 of the 47 countries bound by the treaty allow such designations.

The ruling is a particularly hard blow to gay rights in Finland, where a parliamentary committee rejected same-sex marriage before it could be brought to a vote last month for the second time since 2012. Finland is the only Scandinavian country that does not allow same-sex marriage.

Around the world gay activists have been told that same-sex marriage is not a human right.

The Italian Constitutional Court was faced with almost identical facts only last month. That court also said that civil unions would be adequate to protect the interests of the same-sex couple in that case.

The U.S. Supreme Court declined to say that marriage between persons of the same sex is a right under the U.S. Constitution or international law last year. In a case involving a law that prohibited the U.S. federal government from recognizing marriages between persons of the same sex, the Court ruled that individual states may decide whether or not to allow individuals of the same sex to marry each other.

關鍵字: 愛情兩性、歐洲、同性
     
  
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專家: 王中和老師 | 發表日期: 2014/08/07 11:19
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